Current estimates suggest over 300 million people worldwide are now obese making obesity a global public health issue. Weight gain occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Research into the control of appetite has been carried out in order to elucidate ways in which to reduce energy intake in order to reverse weight gain and help return obese individuals to a heathy weight. This review discusses the hormonal regulation by the hypothalamic neurons involved in appetite control. Furthermore, it highlights key developments in research of the split between homeostatic and hedonistic eating, which may be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Ways in which the obesity epidemic may be treated independently to one’s desire to eat food will also be explored to determine whether weight loss could potentially occur without modulating the amount of food people consume, but instead modulating how people extract energy from food, and how they utilize it.
Appetite, Gut microbiota, PYY, Obesity, Brown adipose tissue